Modelica® – A Unified Object-Oriented Language for Systems Modeling

Language Specification

Version 3.7-dev

April 16, 2024

Modelica Association


This document defines the Modelica11 1 Modelica is a registered trademark of the Modelica Association. language, version 3.7-dev, which is developed by the Modelica Association, a non-profit organization with seat in Linköping, Sweden. Modelica is a freely available, object-oriented language for modeling of large, complex, and heterogeneous systems. It is suited for multi-domain modeling, for example, mechatronic models in robotics, automotive and aerospace applications involving mechanical, electrical, hydraulic control and state machine subsystems, process oriented applications and generation and distribution of electric power. Models in Modelica are mathematically described by differential, algebraic and discrete equations. No particular variable needs to be solved for manually. A Modelica tool will have enough information to decide that automatically. Modelica is designed such that available, specialized algorithms can be utilized to enable efficient handling of large models having more than one hundred thousand equations. Modelica is suited and used for hardware-in-the-loop simulations and for embedded control systems. More information is available at

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The contributors to this and to previous versions of this document are listed in appendix D.